The gut microbiota can be considered a distinct organ with endocrine properties; gut microbiota is involved, through a tight molecular interplay with the host organism, in the homeostasis of host organism energy and in stimulating of its immune system Clarke et al.
Moreover, B and T lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system have been recently recognized as important modulators of glucose homeostasis, indicating that antigen-driven immune responses could influence insulin resistance.
Author Contributions All authors made substantial contributions to the conception of the work; to the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; to the drafting the work and revising it critically for important intellectual content; and they finally approved the version to be published.
Briefly, after demultiplexing of the bar coded Illumina paired reads, single read sequences are cleaned and paired for each sample independently into longer fragments.
The majority of people with the metabolic syndrome are in obese, suggesting that the excess mass of adipose tissue may play a causative role in this cluster of diseases Despres et al.
It is currently unclear whether metabolic dysfunctions affects the higher morbidity and mortality observed in individuals with higher BMI: As the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome rises continuously with enormous economic and social costs, innovative countermeasures on the biological mechanisms, beyond prevention and lifestyle interventions, are required.
Only genes with an absolute expression level expressed as average difference, or Avg Diff, value from Affymetrix software output above a threshold of 30 were analyzed.
Analysis was performed offline using the accompanying software VevoV3. Associations from linear regression models between gut microbiota and alterations of adaptive immune system parameters measured in the heart.
The community structures observed in the different groups were significantly different.
Ministry of Agriculture of Czech Republic on the protection of experimental animals including relevant EU regulations. Fluorometric data were generated by Affymetrix software, and the gene chips were globally scaled to all the probe sets with an identical target intensity value.
Brown bears Ursus arctos seem resistant to atherosclerosis despite highly elevated plasma lipids during hibernation and active state. Peripheral blood was collected into heparinized syringe, resuspend in PBS and spin down. We then examined glucose and insulin levels at the end of the dietary treatment.
Conversely, a lack of clinical consistency for several or all metabolic syndrome components is found in some individuals with long-established and morbid obesity, which is actually recognized as healthy despite a high BMI. It has been already demonstrated that diet shapes gut microbiome composition De Filippo et al.
Our and these published studies suggest that the gut microbiota might reflect faithfully the metabolic phenotype irrespective of variability in the genetic background and diets of the host. It has been proposed that gut microbiota participates to the establishment of metabolic diseases via the onset of low-grade inflammatory processes Zupancic et al.
ND and vs. In this strain, the Ath diet also induces inflammatory and oxidative stress genes such as serum amyloid A, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, colony-stimulating factors, and heme oxygenase high fat diet, but C3H/HeJ mice had higher levels of apoE on both diets.
The major response to consumption of the high fat diet for both strains was an increase in apoB from 5 pg/ml on a low fat diet to 54 and pglml for C57BLhJ and C3H/HeJ, respectively.
the original Paigen diet . The caloric composition was 20 % protein, 35 % fat, and 45 % carbohydrate, and the diet contained % cholesterol and % cholate.
Blood was drawn from vena saphena magna before and 2 weeks after the start of the atherogenic diet. After 6 months of the modiﬁed Paigen diet (at 12 months of age), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was per Cited by: 5.
The final composition of the Paigen diet is 15% fat, % cholesterol, and % sodium cholate. 13,19,20 The fat in this diet is primarily composed of saturated fatty acids derived.
An appreciation of the effect of the differences in diet composition on these processes is important to compare results from different atherosclerosis studies, so the composition of the diets used should always be reported or referenced.
Cholate should not be Cited by: · Abstract. Atherosclerosis in inbred mouse strains has been widely studied by using an atherogenic (Ath) diet containing cholesterol, cholic acid, and fat, but the effect of these components on gene expression has not been systematically festival-decazeville.com by: An appreciation of the effect of the differences in diet composition on these processes is important to compare results from different atherosclerosis studies, so the composition of the diets used should always be reported or referenced.
Cholate should not be Cited by: